Secondary trauma associated with state executions refers to distress, harm, and injuries suffered by

A vignette methodology was used to assess interrogation expectations (IE) among a diverse sample of adults. Vocabulary level, comprehension of Miranda rights, and demographic variables were also assessed. Substantial individual and racial/ethnic group variation in IE was found, with Black participants exhibiting significantly lower expectations of police compliance with Miranda protections compared to White participants. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the combined contribution of vocabulary scores, comprehension of Miranda rights, and multiple demographic variables accounted for only 19% of the variance in IE scores. The findings suggest that suspects have varied expectations of police behavior during interrogation, which may influence the Miranda waiver decision.

Johnson et al 'IE' 2015 journal version
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